Another way to gain additional range on the positive side of an Integer type is to use one of the unsigned types. The unsigned types provide a useful buffer for holding a result that might exceed an operation by a small amount, but this isn't the main reason they exist. The UInt16 type happens to have the same characteristics as the Character type, while the UInt32 type has the same characteristics as a system memory pointer on a 32-byte system.
However, never write code that attempts to leverage this relationship. Such code isn't portable, as on a 64-bit system the system memory pointer changes and uses the UInt64 type. However, when larger integers are needed and all values are known to be positive, these values are of use. As for the low-level uses of these types, certain low-level drivers use this type of knowledge to interface with software that expects these values, and they are the underlying implementation for other value types. This is why, when you move from a 32-bit system to a 64-bit system, you need new drivers for your devices, and why applications shouldn't leverage this same type of logic.
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